Flexible complementary circuits operating at sub-0.5 V via hybrid organic–inorganic electrolyte-gated transistors – pnas.org

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Contributed by Tobin J. Marks, September 23, 2021 (sent for review June 28, 2021; reviewed by George Malliaras, Catherine J. Murphy, and Peidong Yang)
Electrolyte-gated transistor (EGT)–based inverter circuits are the basic building blocks of next-generation flexible electronic devices. However, constructing high-performance complementary inverters is challenging due to the unbalanced electrical performances of available p- and n-type EGT semiconducting materials. Here we report high-performance EGT complementary inverters achieved by combining p-type organic electrochemical transistors based on an ion-permeable semiconducting organic polymer and n-type electric double-layer transistors based on an ion-impermeable metal oxide semiconductor. The resulting closely balanced complementary inverters achieve ultrahigh voltage gain (>110) under a low supply voltage of only 0.7 V and have been successfully used to achieve flexible logic circuits and sensitive electrophysiological signal amplification suitable for ophthalmologic diagnostics and measuring eye movement.

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Electrolyte-gated transistors (EGTs) hold great promise for next-generation printed logic circuitry, biocompatible integrated sensors, and neuromorphic devices. However, EGT-based complementary circuits with high voltage gain and ultralow driving voltage (<0.5 V) are currently unrealized, because achieving balanced electrical output for both the p- and n-type EGT components has not been possible with current materials. Here we report high-performance EGT complementary circuits containing p-type organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) fabricated with an ion-permeable organic semiconducting polymer (DPP-g2T) and an n-type electrical double-layer transistor (EDLT) fabricated with an ion-impermeable inorganic indium–gallium–zinc oxide (IGZO) semiconductor. Adjusting the IGZO composition enables tunable EDLT output which, for In:Ga:Zn = 10:1:1 at%, balances that of the DPP-g2T OECT. The resulting hybrid electrolyte-gated inverter (HCIN) achieves ultrahigh voltage gains (>110) under a supply voltage of only 0.7 V. Furthermore, NAND and NOR logic circuits on both rigid and flexible substrates are realized, enabling not only excellent logic response with driving voltages as low as 0.2 V but also impressive mechanical flexibility down to 1-mm bending radii. Finally, the HCIN was applied in electrooculographic (EOG) signal monitoring for recording eye movement, which is critical for the development of wearable medical sensors and also interfaces for human–computer interaction; the high voltage amplification of the present HCIN enables EOG signal amplification and monitoring in which a small ∼1.5 mV signal is amplified to ∼30 mV.
Author contributions: Y. Yao, W.H., J.P., T.J.M., and A.F. designed research; Y. Yao, J.C., G.W., H.C., X.Z., and Y. Ying performed research; Y. Yao., W.H., and J.C. analyzed data; and Y. Yao, W.H., J.C., T.J.M., and A.F. wrote the paper.

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Reviewers: G.M., University of Cambridge; C.J.M., University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign; and P.Y., University of California, Berkeley University Health Services.
The authors declare no competing interest.
This article contains supporting information online at https://planetworkshops.org/healthy/vegetable-high-in-iron-list/
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Source : Hybrid organic